The main effective factor is a therapeutic breathing environment that is saturated with dry sodium chloride aerosol at a mass concentration varying from 1-16 mg/m3 with a particle size of 1-5 micron. Particle size is optimal for penetration into all sections of the respiratory tract.
Dry sodium chloride aerosol has a considerable level of negative charge of the particles (6-10 nK/m3). The inner surfaces of the airways have a slight positive charge. Negatively charged particles of dry sodium chloride aerosol move into the lumen of the respiratory tract and settle more intensively than neutral particles. In addition, the negative charge increases aerosol stability. Thus dry aerosol action is much more effective than one that is moist (saline solution). The use of dry salt aerosol allows the creation of optimal temperature and humidity parameters in the therapy room, thus avoiding respiratory tract mucus edema and bronchial spasm – common reactions in patients when moist saline aerosols are used. Furthermore, the dose of sodium chloride received by the client within a one (1) 45 minute therapy session is less than the dose received while inhaling moist sodium chloride aerosol.
One of the pathogenesis mechanisms of obstructive lung diseases is the muco-cellular clearance disturbance. Sodium chloride aerosol improves the rheological properties of the airway’s content and normalizes muco-cellular clearance. Sodium chloride is necessary for normal functioning of the bronchial ciliated epithelium, whereas the sodium chloride content in the bronchial secretion of patients with chronic lung diseases decreases. Dry Salt Aerosol’s therapeutic influence, the beneficial effects in improving respiratory tract drainage function are evident during Halotherapy: relief of sputum expectoration, reduction of sputum viscosity, relief of coughing and positive changes in the auscultation picture of the lungs.
Sodium chloride aerosol provides a bactericidal and bacteriostatic effect on respiratory tract micro flora and stimulates alveolar macrophage reactivity, facilitating the increase of phagocyte elements and their activity.
Cyto bacteriological research on the bronchial and nasopharyngeal content of patients with asthma, chronic obstructive bronchitis and cystic fibrosis demonstrates the fact that Halotherapy promotes the reduction of neutrophils and pathogenic microorganisms and increases alveolar macrophages. Its inhibitory effect on the growth and vital capability of microorganisms is accompanied by loss of their pathogenic properties and by adaptation to changed conditions. This adaptation, owing to the loss of fluid, leads to the enhancement of their hydrophobic properties, facilitating attachment to epithelial cells. However, the activation of microbial adhesion does not occur due to the increase of the epithelial cells’ electrophysiological functional activity. Moreover, the colonization resistance of epithelial cells is enhanced under the effect of dry sodium chloride aerosol. This indicates its favorable action on the protective properties of respiratory tract cells and activation of non-specific body defense.
The superficial skin autoflora of most patients normalizes after Halotherapy sessions. Halotherapy has a positive effect on the humoral and cellular immunity of patients with chronic lung diseases. The reduction of IgE (Immunoglobulin E) levels after Halotherapy in patients with asthma is especially important. Optimal temperature and humidity, hypoallergenic and hypobacterial air medium are maintained in the Halo Therapy Room breaking patient contact with pathogenic external air factors has an additional positive influence on the organism.
Source: Speleotherapy Clinic, http://www.halotherapy.com